you don't want to know about Hoffman
Robert R. Hoffman, Ph.D.
is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society, recipient of a Fulbright
Scholar Award, and an Honorary Fellow of The British Library, Eccles
Center for American Studies.
He received his B.A., M.
A., and Ph.D. in experimental psychology at the University of Cincinnati,
where he receivedMcMicken Scholar, Psi Chi, and Delta Tau Kappa Honors.
After a Postdoctoral Associateship at the Center for Research on Human
Learning at the University of Minnesota, Hoffman joined the faculty
of Adelphi University. There, he received awards for outstanding research
and service, and also served as Chair of the Institutional Review board
and the University Grants Officer. He joined the IHMC as a Research
Associate in 1999.
Hoffman's early research
was in the area of psycholinguistics, where he helped pioneer the experimental
study of the comprehension of figurative language (metaphor, proverbs).
His first book, Cognition and Figurative Language, co-edited by his
mentor Richard Honeck of the University of Cincinnati, is now regarded
as a classic. Hoffman went on to help found the journal, Metaphor and
Symbol, for which he remains Associate Editor.
Another focus of Hoffman's
early work, an interest that continues to this day, is the psychology
and history of science. Hoffman has published analyses of the use of
metaphor in science, the history of cognitive psychology and applied
psychology, and the philosophy of contextualism.
After his Postdoctoral Associateship,
Hoffman's research took an applied direction. Hoffman helped launch
an Annual Conference on Applied Experimental Psychology--one of which
was the Ebbinghaus Centennial Conference (Gorfein & Hoffman, 1987),
and another of which was an initial meeting of what would become the
International Society for Ecological Psychology.
Hoffman has been recognized
internationally for his research on expertise, on the methodology of
knowledge elicitation, and on human factors issues in the design of
workstation systems and knowledge-based systems. He is Series Editor
for the book Series, "Expertise: Research and Applications."
To realize his goals for
research in applied cognitive psychology, Hoffman received grants from
the U.S. Army and U. S. Air Force to receive training in remote sensing,
including aerial photo interpretation, terrain analysis, radar interpretation,
and meteorological satellite image interpretation. Ultimately, Hoffman
qualified to teach remote sensing in environmental science, as well
as human factors psychology.
Hoffman's most recent experiments
have investigated novice and expert interpretation of aerial thermograms
and meteorological satellite images. The experiments use judgement,
sorting, and recognition tasks in the attempt to reveal what novices
and experts perceive in the images, and how they reason. Related to
that laboratory work is a series of naturalistic studies ("cognitive
work analysis") of the work practice of weather forecasters at
the U. S. Navy, at the National Weather Service, and at the Meteorological
Office of the United Kingdom.
Another current project involves
an effort to define the methodologies for human-centered computing and
Hoffman is a member of Human
Factors & Ergonomics Society, the American Association for Artificial
Intelligence, the Psychonomic Society, the International Society for
Ecological Psychology, the American Meteorological Society, and the
American Society for Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.
Hoffman has published widely,
in journals including Human Factors, Memory & Cognition, Organizational
Behavior & Human Decision Processes, The Bulletin of the Psychonomic
Society, The Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Ecological Psychology,
Applied Cognitive Psychology, Metaphor and Symbol, The AI Magazine,
Weather and Forecasting, and The Journal of Experimental and Theoretical
Artificial Intelligence. He is a member of the Board of Editors for
the journals Human Factors and Cognitive Technology.
Hoffman serves as reviewer
of grant proposals for The National Science Foundation, NASA, The National
Science Research and Engineering Council of Canada, the US. General
Accounting Office, the Australian Research Council, and the City University
of NY Research Foundation. He has served as consultant to the Evaluation
Methods Division of the U. S. General Accounting Office, the Canadian
Centre for Remote Sensing, and the Human Factors Group of the NEXRAD
Operational Support Facility (NOAA).
In 1994 Hoffman received
a Fullbright Scholar Award and was appointed an Honorary Fellow of The
British Library Eccles Center for American Studies. In 1995 he was elected
Fellow of the American Psychological Society.
Also an award-winning teacher,
Hoffman has offered courses in General Psychology, Experimental Psychology
Laboratory, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Problem
Solving, Psycho-linguistics, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Psychology,
History of Science, Human Factors, and Remote Sensing.
Hoffman has also worked as
a Ranger/Naturalist in the Green Mountains of Vermont and is an accomplished
blues drummer. In his spare time he likes to restore Art Deco period
s in the interpretation of remote sensing imagery (due 2000) (with A.
B. Markman). New York: Lewis Publishers.
as a whole (1998) (with M. Sherrick & J. S. Warm). APA Books.
in context (1996) (with P. Feltovich & K. Ford), MIT Press.
of expertise: Cognitiv e research and empirical AI (1992). Erlbaum.
and the symbolic processes: Applied and ecological perspectives (1991)
(with D. S. Palermo). Erlbaum.
memory (1987) (with D. S. Gorfein). Erlbaum.
and figurative language (1989) (with R. P. Honeck). Erlbaum.
R., & Woods, D. D. (2000). Studying cognitive systems in context.
Human Factors, 42, 1-7. Hoffman, R. R., Crandall, B., & Shadbolt,
N. (1998). A case study in cognitive task analysis methodology: The
Critical Decision Method
for the elicitation of expert knowledge. Human Factors , 40 ,
R. (1998). AI models of verbal/conceptual analogy. Journal of Experimental
and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence , 10 , 259-286. Hoffman, R.
R. (1997). The cognitive psychology of expertise and the domain of interpreting.
The International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting,
R. (1997). How to doom yourself to repeat the past: Some reflections
on the history of cognitive technology. Cognitive Technology, 2, 4-15.
Hoffman, R. R. (1995, Fall). Monster analogies. The AI Magazine, 16
R., Shadbolt, N., Burton, A. M., & Klein, G. A. (1995). Eliciting
knowledge from experts: A methodological analysis. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 62, 129-158.
R., Detweiler, M. A., Lipton, K., & Conway, J. A. (1993). Considerations
in the use of color in meteorological displays.
Weather and Forecasting, 8, 505-518. Hoffman, R. R., & Deffenbacher,
K. A. (1993). An analysis of the relations of basic and applied
science. Ecological Psychology, 5, 315-352.
R., & Deffenbacher, K. (1992). A brief history of applied cognitive
psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 1-48.
R. (1991). Human factors psychology in the support of forecasting: The
design of advanced meteorological workstations.
Weather and Forecasting, 6, 98-110.
R. (1990). Remote perceiving: A step toward a unified science of remote
sensing. Geocarto International, 5, 3-13.
R., & Conway, J. (1990). Psychological factors in remote sensing:
A review of recent research. Geocarto International, 4,
R. (1987, Summer). The problem of extracting the knowledge of experts
from the perspective of experimental
psychology. The AI Magazine, 8, 53-67.